Ever since coronavirus began spreading across the world, there has been some debate on the use of face masks, including who should wear them and the benefits of them.
After months of not being compulsory in England, the government made face coverings mandatory on public transport and for hospital visits from 15 June. Uber also made masks compulsory for customers and staff from this date.
These rules have also been applied to supermarkets, indoor shopping centres, banks, post offices, travel hubs and shops, as well as in the indoor settings where you’re likely to come into contact with people you don’t normally meet, including cinemas, museums, galleries and places of worship.
If you’re picking up a takeaway coffee or food in England, you’ll also have to wear a mask, but this rule doesn’t apply to sit-in meals.
People who don’t wear one will face a fine of up to £100, apart from those with certain medical conditions, children under 11 and those who lip-read.
On 13 August, Boris Johnson announced that tougher penalties would be enforced for those who repeatedly fail to wear face coverings in public places. Fines will double each time someone is found to breach the rules and will increase to a maximum of £3,200.
In Scotland, it’s compulsory to wear one in shops and has been on public transport since June, except for people with certain medical conditions and children under five.
In Wales, since 27 July face coverings have been mandatory on public transport. Where social distancing is not possible, the Welsh government is also advising people to wear masks in crowded places, but this is not compulsory.
Face coverings are also compulsory on public transport in Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland, and from 10 August they will be mandatory in shops, too.
In Scotland, secondary school students will be obliged to wear a face covering in corridors, communal areas and on buses from Monday 31 August.
From 1 September in England, staff and pupils in secondary schools in local lockdown areas like Manchester and Birmingham will be required to wear face coverings when moving around the building and in communal areas where social distancing is difficult to maintain, while for other parts of the country, masks will not be obligatory, but schools will have the discretion to make them mandatory in communal areas should they feel it is necessary.
Wales is currently reviewing its policy on mandatory face masks for pupils ahead of schools reopening.
Sir Venki Ramakrishnan, president of the UK’s national science academy, said everyone should carry a face covering when they leave home. “Not wearing a face covering should be regarded as ‘anti-social’ in the same way as drink driving or failing to wear a seatbelt,” he said.
These coverings can be made from things you’ve already got at home, like an old T-shirt, or even a sports sock with just a few well-made snips with scissors and a little bit of sewing. But if you’re not so confident in your creative abilities, there are plenty of brands are creating their own too, which we’ve rounded up below.
What is the difference between a face covering and a medical face mask?
According to professor Trish Greenhalgh, professor of primary care health sciences at the University of Oxford, a medical face mask is designed to protect healthcare workers from germs emitted by sick patients.
“Many infections are spread by droplets, which are relatively large when they first come out as a cough or a sneeze but become much smaller as they travel through the air and become aerosolised. A medical mask must have a very fine weave because its job is to protect the wearer from tiny aerosolised particles,” she told The Independent.
A cloth face mask, however, works by blocking the bigger droplets before they become aerosolised. “Its job isn’t to protect the wearer but to block the source of infection (what’s known as ‘source control’). Woven fabrics like cotton are very good at source control but less good at protecting the wearer,” she says.
The government was clear in its guidelines that face coverings are not the same as a face mask such as the surgical masks or respirators used as part of personal protective equipment by healthcare and other workers, and it reiterated that these supplies must continue to be reserved for those who need it.
The World Health Organization (WHO) updated its guidelines on 5 June to recommend that governments ask everyone to wear fabric face masks in public areas where there is a risk of transmission of Covid-19, in order to help reduce the spread of the pandemic disease. However, it has stressed that face coverings are only one of a range of tools that can reduce the risk of viral transmission, and should not give a false sense of protection.
It’s also important to note that while valves are a common sight in some face coverings, avoid buying a face covering with a valve, as they do very little. Marisa Glucoft, director of infection prevention Children’s Hospital Los Angeles explained why they’re ineffective: “When you wear a mask with a valve, people around you are not protected because the valve lets all of your breath into the air.”
What are the benefits of wearing a homemade face covering?
“The main benefit is most of your germs will be caught in it, making you less of an infection risk to others. My mask protects you; yours protects me”, explains professor Greenhalgh.
“I think we will soon see more and more people wearing face coverings in public places and that these coverings will soon become a sign that it’s safe to interact,” she adds.
Dr Simon Clarke, associate professor in cellular microbiology at the University of Reading however, stresses that evidence of the effectiveness of wearing face masks to prevent spread of infection is limited.
“If not universally enforced as a recommendation it will do virtually nothing to prevent spread, and the risks of increasing infection might even outweigh the benefits,” he told The Independent, adding that mask-wearing is much less important than social distancing measures and proper hand hygiene.
Who should be wearing a face covering?
The official advice from the government’s Covid-19 recovery strategy document explains that face coverings shouldn’t be worn by everyone.
“Face-coverings should not be used by children under the age of two, or those who may find it difficult to manage them correctly, for example primary age children unassisted, or those with respiratory conditions.”
Wearing a face covering is going to be part of daily life, and although we can’t speak for the effectiveness of these mask coverings, we’ve rounded up some brands who are making their own.
You can trust our independent round-ups. We may earn commission from some of the retailers, but we never allow this to influence selections. This revenue helps us to fund journalism across The Independent.
While occasionwear fashion brand Needle & Thread is best known for its beautifully embroidered dresses, it has recently launched two face covering designs, costing £15 each.
It’s double-lined with elastic ear loops, with a pretty floral pattern. Each purchase also supports mothers2mothers, an organisation that is working to eliminate childhood Aids, with 50 per cent of all the profits going to their emergency Covid-19 appeal.
Visit Needle & Thread now
Ethical clothing brand, Not Just, has started making customisable face masks for £21.09) that you can have personalised with your initials or motifs such as your favourite football team, rainbows or zodiac sign.
You can also buy them in plain black for £14.99, and delivery is free on all mask orders.
Made from a silver-based yarn that protects from bacteria and germs, they have fabric ear straps and from every mask sale, 50 per cent of profits are being donated to the NHS Masks For Heroes crowdfunding campaign, who are raising funds for essential PPE for frontline healthcare workers.
Visit Not Just Clothing Now
When shopping for a face mask, consider the 100% human face mask 5-pack (Everlane, £21) and stock up for your whole household in one order.
They’re made from a double-layer knit cotton with soft fabric straps. From every purchase, Everlane will be donating 10 per cent of the American Civil Liberties Union too as part of their 100% human collection, whose aim is to raise awareness of human rights issues.
Visit Everlane now
You can now buy these double-layered crepe fabric masks from online retailer Revolve, costing £20 for a pack of two.
Available in brightly coloured patterns of flowers and polka dots, they also come with elasticated ear loops too.
Try this too shall pass protective face mask for £17 which has a reassuring embroidery messaging.
Made in double-layered cotton with elastic ear loops and an adjustable nose bridge, it’ll feel comfortable on the skin and look good too.
Revolve is home to many different designs too, such as pastel shades, tie-dye prints, monochrome stripes and leopard print, so if you have a preferred style, you’ll be sure to find one that suits you best while keeping you safe.
Visit Revolve now
Born in Hackney, Pucker Masks was created by three friends during lockdown, Nik, Joe and Cathy.
All its masks, costing £17, are made in colourful designs by UK seamstresses who have been out of work due to the coronavirus and are paid a living wage. The fabric is three layers of breathable cotton with a shaped nose and chin, adjustable nose bridge and a pocket which you can insert a filter if you wish.
It’s also donating 25 per cent of all profits made to three charities; Mind, Refuge and Crisis.
Visit Pucker Masks now
If you’re looking to buy a multipack this Lost + Wander 3 pack face covering (Shopbo, £23.90) offers three assorted fabric designs with varying prints.
There’s a cotton style, rayon and rayon and linen, each with elastic straps to keep them securely in place.
Visit Shopbop now
Contemporary British womenswear brand Isabel Manns works with sustainably conscious seamstresses who ensure the fabric is cut to minimise waste for their scarves, dresses, jumpsuits and more. All are reversible too.
It has since created vibrant lines cotton masks for £12 in three varying colours, in different pinks and blue with elastic ear loops and room to add in a filter if you choose.
Visit Isabel Manns now
This UK-based charity has teamed up with 10 artists, including Camille Walala and Mike Perry to create reversible, reusable and washable face masks for £19 each or £79 for a pack of 5.
Its #masksformeals campaign has been set up for 100 per cent of its net profits from the masks sold, to be sent to Refugee Community Kitchen to help them feed the UK’s homeless.
Each mask is double-layered and made in breathable 100 per cent cotton.
This Midlands-based casual wear label has designed face coverings to buy from £9.99, having diverted its manufacturing process to create a range of different styles.
They come in varying machine washable prints, such as camo and tie-dye, and can be bought individually or in packs of three.
Made in sizes for both adults and kids, some packs for the latter donate all profits to the NHS, too.
Visit Just Hype now
The health and beauty retailer is selling reusable face masks that give back during the pandemic.
For every covering sold, 30 per cent of the profits will be split equally between its five charity partners, which include domestic abuse charities Women’s Aid and Refuge, and breast cancer awareness charity CoppaFeel!
Available in a pale blue or geometric pattern, the ply cotton masks cost £3.50 each and are machine washable at 40C. You can also purchase them in bundles, as Avon offers three for £9 and five for £14 deals.
Visit Avon now
Known for its high quality silk eye masks and pillows that protect your skin and hair as you sleep, this luxury brand has turned its hand to face coverings.
Available in four designs – black, leopard print, blush pink and lip print – the mask is crafted from 100 per cent mulberry silk.
It features adjustable ear straps which make for a comfier fit, and an adjustable nose wire inside to keep the covering secure.
At £39 each, they are pricey, but you’re paying for the premium materials which will make these masks last.
Visit SpaceNK now
This brand is headed up by 27-year-old freelance theatre prop maker and set designer, Alice Cox, who started creating bespoke face masks from old designer fabrics from her spare room in Kennington, London.
She has designed them with a pocket large enough to fit a filter and non-elastic band that will minimise irritation around your ears.
To place an order, email your choice of colour and material to [email protected] One mask will cost you £10, unless you want the liberty-printed style, which is £15.
Visit Alice Cox Creative now
This London-based fashion designer and label, Florence Bridge, creates contemporary womenswear pieces with a sustainability focus at its centre.
In light of the coronavirus outbreak, the brand has created unisex face masks for £12 in a myriad of colours, prints and fabrics, which are machine washable.
Each one has a 100 per cent cotton lining for maximum comfort against your skin.
A portion of profits from the sale of the masks will be going to Fuel Our Frontline charity, who are delivering essential groceries to hospital workers around the UK.
Visit Florence Bridge now
Manchester-based apparel brand, Wawa Clothing, has diverted its production towards making face masks made from 100 per cent organic ripstop cotton.
It’s washable, can be kept securely around your mouth and nose with the elastic loops and the label is made from recycled polyester.
They are available in black or forest green and cost £12.
Visit Wawa Clothing now
For £13, Good Ordering is selling reusable face covers made from two layers of 100 per cent natural fabric, with at least one layer that is densely woven for more protection and elastic straps, which also allows you to insert a filter on the inside. They’re currently sold out, but you can leave your email here to be contacted when they become available again.
The face covers come in one size for adults, but you can request extra-large as well as children’s sizes. They are also selling filters too, which you can buy here.
All the fabrics used to make the face covers are made from recycled or remnants of material in collaboration with a local costume professional, and while it washes the fabrics at a high temperature before production, Good Ordering advises to wash the product before use too.
Visit Good Ordering here
Here you can buy a four-pack of masks for £15 and even design your own artwork to decorate them. If you’re not feeling creative, you can also shop designs that are already made.
The masks are available in small, medium, large or extra-large – so pick the size you want and you’ll get four of the same in your pack.
The brand advises to wash the masks after each use, at 60 degrees.
It describes the fabric of the masks as high-quality and breathable, lasting up to 100 washes, but advises not to tumble dry.
Visit Contrado now
Luxury womenswear label, Plumo, has made protective masks costing £10 each, with four layers of organic linen, which the brand uses for its naturally antibacterial properties, as it’s not an easy environment for germs to breed in
Available in 19 different colours and prints, they can be washed at 90 degrees and are reusable.
For every mask sold, Plumo is donating to Masks for NHS Heroes, a crowdfunding campaign raising money to provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers.
Visit Plumo now
If you want bold, colourful designs for your face covering, head to Newt, which has designed reusable, washable face masks in its signature fun prints on biodegradable fabrics.
The material has a tight weave like cotton, but absorbs moisture better than cotton does.
All its masks are made for adults, have adjustable ear straps and are reversible too.
There’s six designs and each one is £15.
Visit Newt now
Husband and wife duo, Tim and Ara, are behind Aeibe, creating filtered face masks for £45.
It follows scuppered plans for a new collection with material coming from Italy before the coronavirus hit, so Tim and Ara got creative and sourced fabric from Liberty of London instead. The result are pretty floral patterned masks that add a bit of fun to trying times.
Every mask is made in England with 100 per cent cotton lining and 100 per cent non-woven polypropylene filters from Korea on the inside. It also has a soft nose clip to help it shape to your face and stretchy ear loops to keep it secure.
They also come with a cotton bag to keep it safe when you’re not wearing it and a spare filter.
Just make sure to remove your filter and hand wash it at 30 degrees before you put the mask in the washing machine.
Visit Aeibe now
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